The Evolution of Low W-6/W-3 Ratio Dietary Pattern and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Mellitus pp. 45-70
Authors: Ram B Singh, Mahmood Moshiri, Fabien DeMeester, Lekh Juneja and Veerappan Muthusami
Abstract: Diet and physical inactivity appear to be important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. However, the exact nutrients and their pathogenesis are difficult to define. The evolutionary aspects of diet and lifestyle appear to be important. Methods: Review of literature from the internet and discussion with colleagues. Results: Cereal grains (refined), and vegetable oils that are rich in w-6 fatty acids and trans fats are relatively recent addition to the human dietary patterns that represent dramatic departure from natural foods and nutrients to which we are adapted. Excess of trans, saturated and total fat as well as refined starches and sugar in presence of high w-6/w-3 ratio of the diet, are proinflammatory. These foods, can enhance sympathetic activity and oxidative stress that appear to be underlying mechanisms of inflammation, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Excess secretion of these neurotransmitters in conjunction of underlying w-3 fatty acid deficiency, may damage the neurons via proinflammatory cytokines, resulting into their dysfunction. Since, 30–50% of the fatty acids in the brain are omega-3 fatty acids, incorporated in the cell membrane phospholipids, it is possible that their supplementation may be protective. Conclusions. High w-6/w-3 ratio Western diet appear to be risk factor of CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, Mediterranean diet characterised with low w-6/w-3 ratio of 1:1, in conjunction with other nutrients; essential amino acids, soluble fibre, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants may be protective.