Mechanisms of Immune Evasion Exhibited by Different Rat Glioma Cell Lines pp. 109-140
Authors: (Martin R. Jadus, Lara Driggers, Neil Hoa, Jimmy T.H. Pham, Josephine Natividad, Christina Delgado, Edward W.B. Jeffes, Eric Giedzinski, Charles Limoli, Lisheng Ge, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Diagnostic and Molecular Medicine Health Care Group, VA Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, California, and others)
Abstract: Rat glioma cell lines could be considered the previous work horse of experimental glioma research. At least 9 established glioma cell lines exist and they have been used extensively to study many aspects of glioma biology and potential experimental therapeutics. These glioma cells have been defined as either being immunogenic or non-immunogenic, based upon empirical findings. The mechanisms of this immunogenicity/non-immunogenicity have not been fully elucidated. Traditionally, the major mechanisms by which murine tumors were viewed as being non-immunogenic was: by down-regulating the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, by lacking tumor specific antigens, or by making molecules that prevent the immune system from properly working. D74 glioma cells only showed low MHC class 1 (RT1-A) expression. Other non-immunogenic gliomas (F98, 36B10 and CNS-1) displayed equivalent levels of RT1-A, as their more immunogenic counterparts (RT2, BT4C, C6, 9L/T9). Human glioma cell lines possess numerous tumor-associated antigens. In contrast, rat tumor-associated antigens are relatively few. A plethora of immunosuppressive molecules are made by glioma cell lines. In this chapter we will examine why established rat glioma cell lines can grow in vivo, despite being considered ―immunogenic‖. The intrinsic properties (lack of MHC molecules, self-defense molecules, production of immunosuppressive cytokines/enzymes, counterattack strategies, growth rates and resistance to cell-mediated killing) of these cells may allow various aspects of rat glioma immunology to be explained and may allow investigators to focus on their favorite mechanism of immune evasion.
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