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Consciousness, Attention and Meaning
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Authors: Giorgio Marchetti (University of Urbino, Italy) 
Book Description:
This book presents a comprehensive theoretical framework that explains both human consciousness and meanings through the working of attention.
By arguing for a first-person approach to consciousness, this book offers a critical overview of the major theories and empirical findings on consciousness and attention, and exemplifies how one of the most difficult and fundamental conscious experiences to account for, that is, time, can be analyzed by adopting the kind of semantics developed within the presented theoretical framework: Attentional Semantics.

Imprint: Nova Science

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Table of Contents:
Introduction

Acknowledgments

Chapter I: Conscious Experience, pp. 1-58

1. The Main Problem of Consciousness: Qualia

2. Two Approaches to Consciousness: Third-Person and First-Person Perspectives

2.1. A Comparison between the Two Approaches

2.2. A Critical Review of Models of Consciousness Based on the Third-Person Perspective

3. A New Model of Consciousness Based on the First-Person Perspective

3.1. The Perceptual System

3.2. The Schema of Self

4. The Empirical and Logical Plausibility of the Three Main
Assumptions Implied by This Model of Consciousness

4.1. Attention Is Necessary for Consciousness

4.1.1. Some Positive Evidence of the Close Correlation between Attention and Consciousness

4.1.1.1. Psychological Studies of Visual Perception

4.1.1.2. Psychological Studies of the Perception of Time

4.1.1.3. In-attentional Blindness and Change Blindness

4.1.2. Experiments Aimed at Demonstrating Consciousness in the Absence of Attention

4.1.2.1. Animal and Gender Detection in Dual-Task

4.1.2.2. Attentional Blink

4.1.2.3. Gist

4.1.2.4. Pop-Out and the Cocktail Party Effect

4.1.2.5. Iconic Memory

4.1.2.6. Afterimage and Bistable Perception

4.1.3. Experiments Aimed at Demonstrating Attention in the Absence of Consciousness

4.1.3.1. The Absence of a First-Person Perspective

4.1.3.2. Confusing the Perception of Absence with the Absence of Perception

4.1.4. Attention and Consciousness Are Not the Same Thing

4.2. Attentional Activity Can Be Performed Thanks to Nervous Energy, Which Is Supplied by the Organ of Attention

4.3. Attentional Activity Affects the Organ of Attention, Causing a Modification of the State of Nervous Energy Itself, Which Constitutes the Phenomenal Aspect of Consciousness

5. Final Comments

Chapter II: Meaning, pp. 59-127

1. Consciousness: the Organ of Meaning

1.1 Additional Comments

2. The Conscious Experience of Meanings

3. Linguistic Meaning

3.1. Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis that Words Are Tools to Pilot Attention

4. Attentional Semantics

5. The Antecedents of Attentional Semantics

5.1. Silvio Ceccato’s Work

5.2. The Drawbacks of Ceccato’s Proposal

6. The Importance of Non-Attentional Operations for Attentional Semantics

6.1. Mental Activity Consists of Conscious and Unconscious Operations

6.2. A Classification of Conscious Experiences Elicited and Produced by the Joint Activity of the Organ of Attention and Other Organs

6.2.1. Conscious Experiences Determined by the Application of Attention to Other Organs

6.2.2. Conscious Experiences Determined by the Influence on the Organ of Attention of Other Organs and the Physical Substrate of the Body

6.2.3. Conscious Experiences Resulting from Operations, Performed by Other Organs, on the Products of the Activity of the Organ of Attention

6.2.4. Conscious Experiences Resulting from Activities that Are Triggered, Organized and Controlled by Earlier Conscious Mental Acts

6.3. A Classification of Non-Attentional Operations Supporting the Production of Conscious Experiences

6.4. A Classification of Words Based on Non-Attentional Operations

7. The Methods and Techniques of Attentional Semantics

8. Research Programs with the Aim of Systematically Analyzing Meanings in Attentional Terms

8.1. Todd Oakley’s Work

8.2. Leonard Talmy’s Work

8.2.1. Some Considerations on Talmy’s Cognitive Semantics

8.2.2. What Separates Talmy’s Cognitive Semantics from Attentional Semantics

9. Some Implications for the Other Kinds of Semantics

Chapter III: Time, pp. 129-187

1. Circularity

1.1. Circularity in Studies of Time

2. Circularity in Linguistics

2.1. Evans’ Analysis of Time

2.2. Lakoff and Johnson’s Analysis of Time

2.3. Ceccato’s Analysis of Time

3. Circularity in Psychology

3.1. Circularity in Psychology

3.2. The Internal-Clock Models

3.3. Models Alternative to the Internal-Clock Model: the Storage-Size Model

3.4. Attention-Based Models

3.5 Physical Time and Psychological Time

4. Circularity in Neuroscience

5. A Way out of Circularity: Attentional Semantics

6. The Conscious Experience of Time Explained: Mach’s Revised Hypothesis

6.1. Time and Space: a Comparison

6.2. Mach’s Revisited Hypothesis

6.3. Attending to Time Is Experiencing the Effort Made by the Organ of Attention

6.4. The Economical Nature of “Mach’s Revised Hypothesis”

7. A Semantic Analysis of Other Meanings Associated with the Word Time

7.1. The Moment Sense

7.2. The Lexical Item Moment

7.3. The Instance Sense

7.4. The Matrix Sense

8. Final Comments

A Beginning Rather than a Conclusion, pp. 189-191

Author Index pp.211-216

Index pp.217-219

   Series:
      Psychology Research Progress
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2011 - 1st Quarter
   Pages: 219.pp
   ISBN: 978-1-61668-960-5
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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