HAPPINESS AND HOPE: FUTURE AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE CORRELATES OF PRESENT HAPPINESS, pp. 169-178
Authors: Sara Staats, Heidi Wallace and Tara Anderson
Abstract: Happiness is generally construed as positive affect experienced in the present moment while hope is thought of as a future referenced set of beliefs, affects and cognitions (Snyder and Lopez, 2007; Staats, 1989). Happiness is generally believed to be determined in part by one‘s unique personality, set point, general situation and is especially influenced by frequent, small positive events (Argyle, 2001; Diener & Emmons, 1984; Veenhoven, 1994). Hope is here defined as a set of positive expectations and wishes about the future that may condition a persons‘ present affective state such as happiness. Our hopes are for the future, but that activity takes place in the present. The expectation of a better tomorrow may share some of the variance in self-reported present happiness. Here the argument is presented that happiness is also related to one‘s hope for the future, presenting evidence that positive affect or happiness is related to hope as it is assess by several different measures.