Abstract: Now attention of many experts is attracted to studying of structurally and functional characteristics of communities in a complex with abiotic conditions of environment. The aim of this research was to study an influence of hydrological conditions on the primary production of phytoplankton at mouth of the Chupa Bay and to analyze publications and our own obtained data on the primary production of phytoplankton in the White Sea. The form of the response function of the primary production on abiotic conditions of environment has been shown to define basically by lightness and temperature of water. On the basis of the obtained data a three-dimensional model of the primary production dependence on these two factors was constructed. A comparison the primary production of phytoplankton in the White Sea with other seas has shown that by this parameter, the White Sea is significantly inferior only to the Chukchi Sea; it is similar to the Barents Sea, and exceeds other Russian Arctic seas by two to three times (the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and East Siberian Sea).