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01.Anthropology of Environmental Education
02.Vapor Emission to Outdoor Air and Enclosed Spaces for Human Health Risk Assessment: Site Characterization, Monitoring and Modeling
03.Developments in Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries
04.Shale Gas Development
05.A Solar Car Primer
06.Climate Change and Rural Child Health
07.Arid Environments and Wind Erosion
08.Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes
09.Forest Medicine
10.Management of Hazardous Residues Containing Cr(VI)
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Developments in Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries $57.00
Authors: P.G. Balakrishnan, John Rethinam-Central Electrochemical Res. Institute, India 
Book Description:
Although Gaston Planté invented the lead-acid battery in 1859 in France, it took about a century to make it maintenance-free in the sense that there is no necessity for topping up the battery with water. This was made possible by the invention of a hermetically sealed nickel oxyhydroxide-cadmium battery. Though such batteries were variously called in the beginning as maintenance-free battery, sealed battery, starved electrolyte battery, absorbed electrolyte battery, etc., due to heavy litigation, particularly in the U.K., the term valve-regulated lead-acid battery (VRLAB) was coined to obviate the legal battle. The VRLAB operates on the principle of “internal oxygen cycle” without resorting to the use of catalytic recombination plugs. The binary alloys used in the initial periods of development of VRLAB had no aluminium or silver. After the introduction of Ca-Al master alloy for preparing the Pb-Ca-Al alloy, the grid casting problems were minimized. The introduction of tin to alleviate the problem of premature capacity loss helped to a very great extent in increasing the market share of VRLAB, particularly in the stationary market segment. Developments in the absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator also gave a great impetus to the popularization of the VRLAB. The work done by the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) paved the way for increasing the Electric Vehicle (EV) market for VRLAB. Rapid charging of VRLAB not only helped in extending the range of EVs by reducing the down time of EVs, but also increased the life of fast-charged VRLAB. The VRLA battery technology being a comparatively new one, a lot of teething troubles were encountered in the initial periods of its introduction. A detailed analysis of the failure modes of VRLAB and remedial measures adopted by the industry is critically analyzed. Extensive trials of VRLAB have been carried out to prove the utility of automotive VRLAB in Australia, Italy, Germany and Japan. Aircraft VRLAB have been proved immune to thermal runaway even though the temperature rises to 72°C. A new idea of a hybrid AGM-Gel VRLAB for use in high temperature operation is under investigation and field trial.

Table of Contents:

The History of Lead-Acid Battery

The Development of Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid Battery

Criteria for the Successful Operation of "Oxygen Cycle" in VRLAB

Grids and Alloys for VR Batteries

Casting of Grids

Paste Mixing and Pasting Operations


Absorptive Glass Mat Separator (AGM)


Cadmium Voltage Readings

Assembly of VR Batteries

Containers and Covers

Pressure Vents (Safety Valves)

Assembly of Gelled VR Batteries

Assembly of AGM Batteries

Filling of VR Batteries with Electrolyte

Filling of AGM Batteries with Electrolyte

Filling of Gelled VR Batteries with Electrolyte

Conditioning Cycles

Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium

Element Compression

Fast Charge

New Generation Automotive Batteries

Operational Experience

Failures of VRLAB-Causes and Remedial Measures

Temperature/Thermal Runaway/Dry Out

Battery Monitoring


Results of Experiments with Catalysts

Failure of Negative Half-Block

Premature Capacity Loss [220-229]



   Binding: ebook
   Pub. Date: 2008
   ISBN: 978-1-60876-298-9
   Status: AV
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
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Developments in Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries