Pharyngeal disease and/or dysfunction is responsible for many cases of dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). This can result in dehydration, malnutrition and life-threatening conditions such as aspiration pneumonia and choking. This book discusses the causes of and current treatment approaches in managing and alleviating pharyngeal dysphagia. Also evaluated are the effects of the developmental disturbances in the maxillofacial region on the pharyngeal and neighboring structures. Furthermore, the effects of orthodontic and/or orthopedic approaches are assessed, such as maxillary protraction, rapid maxillary expansion, and activator. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study is also introduced as a standard method for the diagnosis of pharyngeal diseases and to describe the basic principles and approaches of the treatment of pharyngeal dysphagia. In addition to pharyngeal dysphagia, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to childhood malignant nasopharyngeal tumors are reviewed. The authors also review the known prognostic factors of these diseases in order to discuss treatment adaptation, especially in young children. Other chapters in this book explore the cardinal manifestation of the neurological diseases, a discussion of the improved imaging systems and new radioactive agents in diagnosing and treating various tumors, a review of the potential causes of isolated uvulitis, retropharyngeal hematoma, and adenotonsillar disease and the treatment for peritonsillar abscess, a complication of acute bacterial tonsillitis, and other pharyngeal diseases.