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Advances in Environmental Research. Volume 65
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Authors:  (Tomoko Maeda, Ji Hyun Kim and Naofumi Morita, Department of Science, Technology, and Human Life, Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo, Japan, and others)
Abstract:
To make the best use of polished flours for processed foods,
sourdoughs were prepared using three fractions of polished flours C-1
(100-90%), C-5 (60-50%) and C-8 (30-0%) and their sourdough
properties and bread qualities were studied. The pH and total titratable
acidity levels and the buffering capacityof sourdoughs made from
polished flours were significantly different from those of the control
sourdough made with No. 1 Canada Western Red Spring (CW), and these
flours were sufficient for providing better quality sourdough breads,
compared with CW. The growth of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in
polished flour sourdoughs was significantly accelerated during
fermentation, compared with that in CW sourdough. The higher
maturation of polished flour sourdough altered the hardness of the mixed
dough. Substitutions of sourdoughs made from polished-flour fractions
C-5 and C-8 in place of wheat flours significantly increased the loaf
volume, and the breadcrumbs containing sourdoughs made from the C-5
and C-8 fractions were significantly softer than that of CW sourdough.
The qualities of polished flours, such as larger amounts of damaged
starch and dietary fiber or higher maltose values, and the suitable acidity
or good buffering capacity caused by the bran fraction were effective for
better growth and activity of the yeast in the dough during fermentation.
The volatile flavor compounds identified in C-5 and C-8 were similar to
those found in CW. However, some compounds that have a connection
with both oxidation products from unsaturated fatty acids and metabolites
from a number of species associated with moldy grains were more
abundant in C-5 and C-8 than in CW. The sourdough-method increased
the proportions of acids and aldehydes in the crust but decreased the
levels of alcohols and methoxybenzenes identified in the outermost
fraction compared to the straight-common-method. In addition, the
sourdough-method lowered the amounts of some compounds related to
the oxidation products from unsaturated fatty acids andmetabolite species
obtained from moldy grains, compared with the straight-commonmethod.
Therefore, the sourdough-method, including lactic acid
fermentation, would be a suitable baking procedure that uses polished
flours based on flavor properties. Sourdough bread using polished flours
obtained from the middle and innermost fractionsmight produce the taste
and texture qualities that best satisfy consumersí bread preferences. 


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Sourdough Bread (pp. 21-37)